Long-term care in India: Capacity, need and future

Arunika Agarwal
David E. Bloom

Volume 75 (2022), Issue 3-4 (Special issue)

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The family is the dominant player in India’s current long-term care (LTC) system. Yet informal family-based arrangements will be insufficient to accommodate India’s growing need for LTC due to increasing longevity and geographic mobility, the prevalence of chronic disease and disability among the elderly, and the decline of extended family living arrangements. Addressing the growing need for LTC will require a robust expansion of the current LTC system, especially its non-familial components. This overhaul will require investments in infrastructure, human resources and legal and regulatory environments. The objectives of this study are to i) provide a descriptive summary and analysis of the LTC system in India, with attention to cross-state heterogeneity and to the financial, social and cultural factors that impede the operation of India’s LTC system; ii) estimate and assess the current and future need for LTC and its critical financial and human inputs; and iii) critically analyse and discuss the institutions and policies, technologies and behaviours needed to bring capacity comfortably into conformance with the need for LTC.

Medical care
Long-term care
elder care
medical care
social services
social protection