Descriptions of the major social security reforms in social protection schemes worldwide since 1995, including information on existing and planned changes to social security systems. Social security reforms are compiled by the ISSA Social Security Observatory.
On January 18, the Department for Work and Pensions published a draft bill introducing a flat-rate single-tier pension (STP) to replace the existing multi-tier public pension system.
On January 1, a new monthly pension supplement went into effect under Estonia's first-pillar, public pay-as-you-go (PAYG) program for pensioners who have provided care to a child aged 3 or younger.
On 25 October 2012 the German Bundestag voted to raise the upper earnings limit on mini-jobs from EUR 400 to EUR 450 effective from 1 January 2013.
A Social Security Agreement between Australia and Latvia, signed in Riga on 7 September 2011, came into effect on 1 January 2013.
A Social Security Agreement between Australia and Hungary, signed in Budapest on 7 June 2011, came into effect on 1 October 2012.